Munich Agreement In 1938

December 1938, 97.32% of adults donated to the NSDAP. About half a million Sudeten Germans joined the NSDAP, 17.34% of the German population in the Sudetenland (the average participation of the NSDAP in Nazi Germany was 7.85%). Thus, the Sudetenland was the “pro-Nazi” region of the Third Reich. [89] The slogan “Above us, without us!” (Czech: O n`s bez n`s!) sums up the feelings of the Czechoslovakian population (Slovakia and the Czech Republic) towards the agreement. [Citation required] On its way to Germany, Czechoslovakia (as the state was renamed) lost its reasonable border with Germany and its fortifications. Without it, its independence became more nominal than more real. The agreement also caused Czechoslovakia to lose 70% of its steel industry, 70% of its electricity and 3.5 million citizens to Germany. [61] The Sudeten Germans celebrated what they saw as their liberation. The impending war, it seemed, had been averted. Chamberlain wrote in a letter to his sister Hilda, October 2, 1938: September 29-30, 1938: Germany, Italy, Great Britain and France signed the Munich Agreement by which Czechoslovakia had to cede its border and defensive regions (the Sudetenland) to Nazi Germany.

German troops occupied these territories between 1 and 10 October 1938. On 29 and 30 September 1938 an emergency meeting of the major European powers – without Czechoslovakia or the Soviet Union, allied with France and Czechoslovakia – was held in Munich. An agreement was quickly reached on Hitler`s terms. It was signed by the leaders of Germany, France, Great Britain and Italy. On the military front, the Sudetenland was of strategic importance to Czechoslovakia, as most of its border defences were there to protect themselves from a German attack. The agreement between the four powers was signed with low intensity in the context of an undeclared German-Czechoslovak war, which had begun on 17 September 1938. Meanwhile, after 23 September 1938, Poland transferred its military units to the common border with Czechoslovakia. [2] Czechoslovakia bowed to diplomatic pressure from France and Great Britain and decided on 30 September to cede Germany to Munich conditions. Fearing a possible loss of Zaolzie to Germany, Poland issued an ultimatum to Zaolzie, with a majority of Polish ethnic groups, which Germany had accepted in advance and accepted Czechoslovakia on 1 October.

[3] The Munich quotation in foreign policy debates is also common in the 21st century. [107] During negotiations on the Iran nuclear deal by Secretary of State John Kerry, a Republican representative from Texas called the negotiations “worse than Munich.” In a speech in France, Kerry himself referred to Munich for military action in Syria: “This is our munich moment.” [108] Chamberlain`s travels to Germany threatened not only to disrupt his plans, but also to steal his thunder. Yet Hitler was well aware that the Munich Accords offered the best chance of achieving his goals without an early war. On September 17, 1938, Hitler ordered the creation of the German Free Corps of Sudetenland, a paramilitary organization that took over the structure of the dossier group, an ethnic-German organization in Czechoslovakia that had been dissolved the day before by the Czechoslovakian authorities for involving a large number of terrorist activities.